2Institute of Biotechnology , Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3Department of Immunology, Autoimmune Disease Research Center and Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Zataria multiflora (ZM) is a thyme-like aromatic plant in the Lamiaceae family that grows in central and southern Iran. ZM is extensively used as a flavor ingredient in a wide variety of foods and is used as part of popular traditional folk remedies. In the present study, ZM essential oil (ZMO) was obtained from ZM leaves via hydro-distillation and then analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The anti-inflammatory activity of ZMO was determined via measures of NADH oxidase (NOX), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). GC-MS analysis indicated that the main components in the ZMO were carvacrol (29.4%), thymol (25.7%), p-cymene (11.2%), linalool (9.3%), and γ-terpinene (8.0%). ZMO significantly reduced NOX, iNOS, TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA expression in cells at concentrations of 0.1-1 μg/mL, indicating a capacity for this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. ZMO has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and could be potentially used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and a number of inflammatory conditions associated with stress.
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