Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
Bream (Abramis brama orientalis) is one of the most commercially valuable fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to compare levels of genetic polymorphism between wild and farmed Bream populations using seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was investigated by studying samples collected from two regions; Chaboksar and the Artificial Propagation Center of Guilan province. Allele frequency was found to have declined in wild and cultured fish due to inbreeding and genetic drift. Significant population differentiation (Fst) was observed between wild and farmed populations, which could be explained by the low number of alleles in two populations. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at more loci. Beyond the null alleles' hypothesis, heterozygote deficiency may have arisen due to inbreeding. Both populations showed lowest genetic diversity according to the number of alleles and genotypes per each locus. This approach was carried out for the first time and could provide information regarding the genetic variability of farmed and wild abramis brama fish using microsatellite markers. Results could be used for the management and conservation of artificial Bream propagation programs.
1.Kiabi BH, Abdoli A, Naderi M. Status of the fishfauna in the south Caspian basin of Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 1999;18:57-65.
2.Ferguson A, Taggart JB, Prodohl PA, McMeel O, Thompson C, Stone C, McGinnity P, Hynes RA. The application of molecular markers to the study and conservation of fish populations whit special reference to Salmo. Fish Biol 1995;47:103-126.
3.Bataillon TM, David JL, Schoen DJ. Neutral genetic markers and conservation. Simulated germplasm collections. Genetics 1996;144:409-417.
4.Tautz D. Hypervariability of simple sequences as a general source for polymorphic DNA markers. Nucleic Acids Res1989;17:6463-6471.
5.Litt M, Luty JA. A hypervariable microsatellite revealed by in-vitro amplification of dinucleotide repeat within the cardiac muscle actin gene. Am J Human Genet 1989;44:397-401.
6.Brooker AL, Cook D, Bentzen P, Wright JM, Doyle RW. Organization of microsatellites di.ers between mammals and cold-water teleost fishes. Can J Fisheries Aqua Scie 1994; 51:1959-1966.
7.DeWoody JA, Avise JC. Microsatellite variation in marine, freshwater and anadromous fishes compared with other animals. J Fish Biol 2000;56:461-473.
8.Was A, Wenne R. Genetic differentiation in hatchery and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the southern Baltic at microsatellite loci. Aquaculture 2002;204:493-506.
9.Lucentini L, Palomba A, Lancioni H, Gigharelli L, Natali M, Panara F. Microsatellite polymorphism in Italian populations of northern pike (Esoxlucius L.). Fisheries Res 2006;80:251-262.
10.Askari G, Shabani A, Kolangi-Miandare H. Application of molecular markers in fisheries and aquaculture. J Animal Sci 2013;2:82-88.
11.Sunden SLF, Davis SK. Evaluation of genetic variation in a domestic population of Penaeus vannamei Boone: a comparison with three natural populations. Aquaculture 1991; 97:131–142.
12.Garcia DK, Faggart MA, Rhoades L, Alcivar-Warren AA, Wyban JA, Carr WH, Sweeney JN, Ebert KM. Genetic diversity of cultured Penaeus vannamei using three molecular genetic techniques. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 1994;3:270–280.
13.Wolfus G, Garcia DK, Alcivar-Warren A. Application of the microsatellite technique for analyzing genetic diversity in shrimp breeding programs. Aquaculture 1997; 152:35–47.
14.Nakajima M, Kita A, Fujio Y. Genetic features of natural and cultured populations in masu salmon. Tohoku J Agric Res 1986;37:31–42.
15.Paaver T. The low level of genetic variability of the Donaldson rainbow trout strain. Proc. Acad. Sci. Est. SSR, Biol.1986; 35:193-197.
16.Staahl G. Differences in the amount and distribution of genetic variation between natural populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 1983;33: 23–32.
17.Verspoor E. Reduced genetic variability in first-generation hatchery populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 1988;45:1686-1690.
18.Vuorinen J. Reduction of genetic variability in a hatchery stock of brown trout, Salmotrutta L. J Fish Biol 1984;24:339-348.
19.Kohlmann K, Gross R, Murakaeva A, Kersten P. Genetic variability and structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) populations throughout the distribution range inferred from allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Aquat Living Resour 2003;16:421–431.
20.Kohlmann K, Kersten P, Flajšhans M. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of domesticated, wild and feral common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) populations. Aquaculture 2005;247:253-266.
21.Hillis DM, Moritz C, Mable BK. Molecular Systematics. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA, pp. 1996;655.
22.Bassam BJ, Caetano-Anolles G, Gresshoff GM. Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Annu Rev Biochem 1991;84:680-683.
23.Peakall R, Smouse PE. GenAlex 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research-an update. Bioinformatics 2012;28:2537-2539.
24.Nei M. Genetic distance between populations. Am Naturalist 1972;106:283-292.
25.Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T.1999. POPGENE version 1.3.1. Microsoft Windowbases Freeware for population Genetic Analysis. Available: www.uallberta.ca/fyeh/. University of Alberta and the Centre for Inter Forestry Res.
26.Hinder K, Rayman N, Ulter F. Genetic effects of cultured fish on natural fish population. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 1991;48:945-957.
27.Beardmore JA, Mair GC, Lewis RI. Biodiversity in aquatic systems in relation to aquaculture. Aquac Res 1997; 28:829-839.
28.Butler A, Cross TF. Genetic differences between successive year classes of two strains of reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquac Res 1996; 27:643– 649.
29.Was A, Wenne R. Genetic differentiation in hatchery and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the southern Baltic at microsatellite loci. Aquaculture 2002;204:493-506.
30.Alarcon J A, Magoulas A, Georgakopoulos T, Zouros E, Alvarez MC. Genetic comparison of wild and cultivated European populations of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture2004;230:65-80.
31.Abbas K, Zhou XY, Li Y, Gao ZX, Wang WM. Microsatellite diversity and population genetic structure of yellow cheek, Elopichthysbambusa (Cyprinidae) in the Yangtze River. Biochemical Sys Ecol 2010;38:806-812.
32.Zolghamein H, Salari-Aliabadi MA, Forougmand AM, Roshani S. Genetic population structure of Hawksbill turtle (Eretochelysimbricta) using microsatellite analysis. J Biotechnol 2011;1:56-62.
33.Bergh MO, Getz WM. Stability and harvesting of competing populations with genetic variation in life history strategy. Genes 1989;113:939-965.
34.Castric V, Bernatchez L, Belkhir K, Bonhomme F. Heterozygote deficiencies in small lacustrine populations of brook charr Salvelinus Fontinalis Mitchill (Pisces, Salmonidae). A test of alternative hypotheses. Heredity 2002;89:27-35.
35.Xu Z, Primavera JH, de la Pena LD, Pettit P, Belak J, Alcivar-Warren A. Genetic diversity of Penaeus monodon shrimp in four geographic regions representing different mangrove habitats and shrimp aquaculture systems in the Philippines. In: Alcivar-Warren, A. ŽEd., Proceedings of the Symposium on Aquaculture and Conservation of Marine Shrimp Biodiversity, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, December 10, 1998.
36.Grassi F, Imazio S, Gomarasca S, Citterio S, Aina R, Sgorbati S, Sala F, Patrignani G, Labra M. Population structure and genetic variation within Valeriana wallrothii Kreyer in relation to different ecological locations. Plant Sci 2004;166:1437-1441.
37.Wright S. Evolution and the genetics of populations variability within and among natural populations. University of Chicago Press. 2nd Ed., University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1978.
38.FAO/UNEP, 1981. Conservation of the genetic resources of fish: problems and recommendations. Report of the Expert Consultation on the genetic resources of fish. Rome, 9-13. June 1980. FAO Fish Tech Pap vol. 217.