Distribution of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Iranian populations

Document Type: Original article

Author

Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE; OMIM: 106180) has an important role in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin. Genetic polymorphism I/D (rs4646994) in the gene encoding ACE has been well defined. To get more insight into the genetic structure of Iranian populations, the distribution of the ACE I/D polymorphism among Iranians was compared with each other and with other populations. Prevalence of the D allele was 0.5886 (95% CI: 0.5725-0.6047) in Iran. There was significant difference between Iranian populations (Chi2=27.7, df=6, P2=10.15, df=5, P=0.071). The D allele showed high frequency in Iran which is similar to Caucasians.

Keywords


1. Rigat B, Hubert C, Alhenc-Gelas F, Cambien F, Corvol P, Soubrier F. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. J Clin Invest 1990;86: 1343-1346.

2.  Suehiro T, Morita T, Inoue M, Kumon Y, Ikeda Y, Hashimoto K. Increased amount of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA originating from the ACE allele with deletion. Hum Genet 2004;115:91-96.

3.  Zhao J, Qin X, Li S, Zeng Z. Association between the ACE I/D polymorphism and  risk of ischemic stroke: an updated meta-analysis of 47,026 subjects from 105 case-control studies. J Neurol Sci 2014;345:37-47.

4. Wang Z, Wang P, Wang X, He X, Wang Z, Xu D, Hu J, Wang B. Significant association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and risk of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Metabolism 2013;62:1227-38.

5.  Amirshahi P, Sunderland E, Farhud DD, Tavakoli SH, Daneshmand P, Papiha SS. Serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes of populations in Iran. Hum Hered 1989; 39:75-80

6. Rafiee L, Saadat I, Saadat M. Glutathione S-transferase genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTO2) in three Iranian populations. Mol Biol Rep 2010;37: 155-158

7. Nickmanesh M, Hosseini-Asl S, Yazdanbod A, Pourfarzi F, Didevar R, Akhavan H. Any significant association between the angiotension-converting enzyme insertion/ deletion polymorphism and gastric cancer in Ardabil province. Ann Oncol 2011;22: v34.

8. Mazaheri H, Saadat M. Association between insertion/deletion polymorphism inangiotension converting enzyme and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Iranian J Public Health 2015;44:369-373.

9. Rahimi Z, Rahimi Z, Mozafari H, Parsian A. Preeclampsia and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) I/D and angiotensin II type-1 receptor (ATIR) A1166C polymorph-isms: association with ACE I/D polymorphism. J Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 2013; DOI: 10.1177/1470320312448950.

10. Salimi S, Mokhtari M, Yaghmael M, Jamshidi M, Naghavi A. Association of angiotension-converting enzyme intron 16 insertion/deletion and angiotensin II type1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphisms with preeclampsia in south east of Iran. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011;ID 941515.

11. Keikhaee MR, Hashemi SB, Najmabadi H, Noroozian M. C677T methylentetra-hydrofulate reductase and angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphisms in patients with Alzheimer's disease in Iranian population. Neurochem Res 2006;31: 1079-1083.

12. Poorgholi L, Saffar H, Fathollahi MS, Davoodi G, Anvari MS, Goodarzynejad H, Ziaee S, Boroumand MA. Angiotensin- converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and its association with coronary artery disease in an Iranian population. J Tehran Heart Cent 2013;8:89-94.

13. Yenki P, Safari Z, Azimi C. Lack of association between two ACE gene polymorphisms (rs4291 and Alu I/D) and late onset Alzheimer’s disease. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:5982-5987.

14. Nikzamir A, Esteghamati A, Feghhi M, Nakhjavani M, Rashidi A, Reza JZ. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is associated with progression, but not development, of albuminuria in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2009;10:109-114.

15. Hosseini-Khalili AR, Thompson J, Kehoe A, Hopkinson NS, Khoshbaten A, Soroush MR, Humphries SE, Montgomery H, Ghanei M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. BMC Pulm Med 2008;8:15.

16. Bagheri M, Abedi-Rad I, Omrani MO, Nanbaksh F. Polymorphisms of the angiotension converting enzyme gene in Iranian Azeri Turkish women with unexplain recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Fertil 2010;13:79-82.

17. Abdi-Rad I, Bagheri M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism in general population of west Azarbaijan, Iran. Iran J Kidney Dis 2011; 5:86-92.

18. Bayoumi RA, Simsek M, Yahya TM, Bendict S, Al-Hinai A, Al-Barwani H, Hassan MO. Insertion-deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene among Sudanese, Somalis, Emiratis, and Omanis. Hum Biol 2006;78:103-108.

19. Houcher B, Begag S, Houcher Z, Karabiyik A, Egin Y, Akar N. Prevalence of genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (insertion/deletion) in Sétif population, Algeria. Mol Biol Res Commun 2013;2:19-27.

20. Al-Eisa A, Haider MZ, Srivastva BS. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2001;35:239-242.